Global Climate Change The Exploratorium
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This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0128981. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Pirelli Award The Exploratorium's Global Climate Change site received a Pirelli INTERNETional Award for environmental publishing.
The site also won an Honorable mention in the database category at the prestigious MUSE Awards at the American Association of Museums conference.
  • Project Management/Writing and Editing:
    Pat Murphy

  • Writers:
    Hugh McDonald (Lead Writer),
    Thomas Humphrey, Mary K. Miller, Zachary Tobias, Pearl Tessler, Michael Matz

  • Editors:
    Ruth Brown, Ellyn Hament, Laura Jacoby, Judith Brand, Martha N. Steele

  • Web site Design and Management:
    Ideum (
    Jim Spadaccini
    Mahjabeen Butt
    James Maccaroni

Thanks to Goéry Delacôte and Rob Semper for their institutional support.

 If you have comments about this site please e-mail:
At the Exploratorium, no one works alone. Without the help of many members of the Exploratorium staff as well as scientists and researchers from around the world who shared their work with us, the Global Climate Change Research Explorer Web site would not have been possible.

Thanks to our advisors: David Ainley, H.T. Harvey & Associates; Andrew Fountain, Portland State University; Bob Henson, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research; Jerry Mahlman, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (Former Director of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory of NOAA); Michael McPhaden, NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Steve Schneider, Biological Sciences, Stanford University; and Richard Somerville, Scripps Institution.

Thanks also to the scientists and researchers who contributed to this site.
 Credits for the Data sets
The following is a list of credits for the data sets and images they have so graciously allowed us to use:

Data Sets and Images in Overview

The Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance: Buchdahl, J. M. Global Climate Change Student Information Guide, 1995 (updated 1999), Atmospheric Research and Information Centre, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK.

The Global Thermohaline Ocean Circulation: Buchdahl, J. M. Global Climate Change Student Information Guide, 1995 (updated 1999), Atmospheric Research and Information Centre, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK.

The North Atlantic Showing Gulf Stream: P. Cornillon, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island

South Cascade Glacier in the Washington Cascade Mountains: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Data Sets and Images in Atmosphere

Global Outgoing Longwave Heat Radiation:
CERES instrument team

Global Reflected Shortwave Solar Radiation: CERES instrument team

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii (1958–2000): Keeling, C. D. and T. P. Whorf. 2001. “Atmospheric CO2 records from sites in the SIO air sampling network.” In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Global Average Near-Surface Temperature Anomalies, 1961–2002: © Crown Copyright, Met Office

Global Stratospheric and Tropospheric Temperature Anomalies:
Global Hydrology and Climate Center
Data Sets and Images in Hydrosphere

Today’s Sea Surface Temperatures:

Space Science and Engineering Center: University of Wisconsin-Madison

Weekly Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

U.S. Drought Monitor: Joint project of the National Drought Mitigation Center, United States Department of Agriculture, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

TAO/Triton Sea Surface Temperature and Winds: Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Project

JMA Index showing El Niño and La Niña years: Courtesy of the Center for Ocean Atmospheric Predication Studies, Florida State University
Data Sets and Images in Cryosphere

Northern Hemisphere Snow and Ice Chart:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite Services Division Snow and Ice Program

South Pole/Ice Concentration: Fleet Numerical Meterology and Oceanography Center

Climate Records from the Vostok Ice Core Covering the Last 420,000 years: National Ice Core Laboratory

Global Glacier Volume Change (1960–1998): Dyugerov, Mark. 2002. “Glacier Mass Balance and Regime: Data of Measurements and Analysis.” INSTAAR Occasional Paper No. 55, ed. M. Meier and R. Armstrong. Boulder, CO: Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado. Distributed by National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO.

Case Study: The Collapse of the Larsen B Ice Shelf: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Data Sets and Images in Biosphere

Current Coral Bleaching Hot Spots:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS)

Central America/GOES-8 Wildfire ABBA: UW-Madison CIMSS GOES Biomass Burning Monitoring Program.

Leafing Dates of Oak (1746–present): Woodland Trust. Sparks, T. H., Carey, P. D., and Combes, J. 1997. “First leafing dates of trees in Surrey between 1947 and 1996.” The London Naturalist, 76, 15–20.

Greening in the North: Ranga B. Myneni, Department of Geography, Boston University

Case Study: Climate Change and Animal Populations: Photo: WWF-Canon/R. Malenki. This image cannot be used by third parties for reproduction purposes.
Data Sets and Images in Global Effects

Annual Mean Precipitation as Simulated by a Global Climate Model and Observed Values:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Global Change Science Climate Modeling Initiative

Risk of Malaria Transmission: Courtesy of Dr. Pim Martens. Martens, P. 1999. “How will climate change affect human health?” American Scientist, 87, November–December, 534-541.

Sample Forecasts of Future Temperature Change: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

Average Annual Global Number of People Flooded under Three Emissions Scenarios: Courtesy of Professor Robert Nicholls, University of Middlesex, London

Change in Annual Mean Sea Surface Temperature under Four Emission Scenarios: UKCIP02 Climate Change Scenarios (funded by DEFRA, produced by Tyndall and Hadley Centres for UKCIP)

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