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Museum Education

Association of Science-Technology Centers Incorporated (by Inverness Research Associates), Washington, DC, 1996.
An Invisible Infrastructure: Institutions of Informal Science Education:
Executive Summary
Volume 1: Findings from a National Survey of Institutions of Informal Science
Volume 2: Appendixes: Survey Form and Detailed Data (available from ASTC, $30 for members, $36 for nonmembers at 202/783-7200).
Abstract: This report documents the wide impact science centers and other institutions of informal science education have on schools.

Bettelheim, Bruno.
"Children, Curiosity and Museums." Children Today; v9 n1, pp.16, 22-23, Jan-Feb 1980.

Abstract: Based on his experience and enjoyment of museums the author suggests how museums may best influence children.

Brown, John Seely; Allan Collins; Paul Duguid.
"Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning."
Educational Researcher; v18 n1, pp. 32-42, Jan-Feb 1989.

Abstract: Conventional schooling too often ignores the influence of school culture on what is learned in school. Knowledge is situated, being in part a product of the activity, context, and culture in which it is developed and used; this is known as cognitive apprenticeship. Implications for understanding, learning, and teaching are discussed.

Hawkins, David.
"Critical Barriers to Science Learning"
Outlook; 29; pp. 3-23, 1978.
Abstract: The author illustrates and discusses some critical barrier phenomena, such as the optics of mirrors and heat and cold, which most people have difficulty extending beyond an everyday understanding.

Hawkins, David.
"Messing About in Science." In The Informed Vision: Essays on Learning and Human Nature. New York: Agathon Press, 1974. pp. 63-75.
Abstract: There are three major phases of good science teaching; teaching that does not mix all three is not likely to be optimal.

Hein, George.
"Constructivist Learning Theory"
in The Museum and the Needs of People. CECA (International Committee of Museum Educators) Conference. Jerusalem, Israel, 15-22 October 1991.
Abstract:The latest catchword in educational circles is "constructivism, " applied both to learning theory and to epistemology---both to how people learn, and to the nature of knowledge. We don't need to succumb to each new fad, but we do need to think about our work in relation to theories of learning and knowledge. So we need to ask: what is constructivism, what does it have to tell us that is new and relevant, and how do we apply it to our work?

Hein, George.
"The Constructivist Museum"
in the Journal of Education in Museums, #15, 1995. pp. 1-15.
Abstract: Constructivism is appropriate as a basis for museum education, if we consider the wide range of museum visitors. How can we accommodate this diverse audience and facilitate their learning from our objects on their voluntary, short visits?

Roschelle, Jeremy.
"Learning in Interactive Environments: Prior Knowledge and New Experience"
Public Institutions for Personal Learning: Establishing a Research Agenda.
John Falk and Lynn Dierking, Editors. Washington: American Association of Museums, 1995.
Abstract: Educators often focus on the ideas they want their audiences to have. But research has shown that a learner's prior knowledge often confounds an educator's best efforts to deliver ideas accurately. Neglect of prior knowledge can result in the audience learning something opposed to the educator's intentions, no matter how well those intentions are executed in an exhibit, book, or lecture.

Russell, Robert L.
Issues and Opportunities: Science Museums and Schools: Executive Summary.
Informal Science, Inc. August 1995. 25 pp.
Abstract: The Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) received a planning grant from the National Science Foundation's Informal Science Education Program to examine the role of science centers in formal education. This paper reports those findings which will be used to assist ASTC and its members plan future initiatives in support of science education in schools.

Semper, Robert J.
"Science Museums as Environments for Learning".
Physics Today; v43 n11, pp. 50-56, Nov 1990.
Abstract: Science museums have evolved into unique educational institutions with particular attributes for science learning that are hard to duplicate in almost any other setting.



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