(founded in 1869)—and hundreds of other scientific journalshelp
push science forward by providing a venue for researchers to publish and
debate findings. Today, journals also validate the quality of this research
through a rigorous evaluation called peer review. Generally at least two
scientists, selected by the journal’s editors, judge the quality
and originality of each paper, recommending whether or not it should be
was a different game when Watson and Crick submitted this paper to Nature.
With no formal review process at most journals, editors usually reached
their own decisions on submissions, seeking advice informally only when
they were unfamiliar with a subject.