This activity requires two people: one to rotate the turntable and one to hold the needle arm and sound cone.
To set up the turntable, hold the pencil-and-record assembly on a tabletop, point-side down, like a spinning top (the pencil will act as the axle of your spinning top). Make sure the record stays as horizontal as possible. Gently twirl the pencil, turning the record clockwise. See if you can spin the record at 33 1/3 revolutions per minute (RPM)—good luck!
To set up the needle arm, grasp the wider end of the sound cone and bring the pointed end of the cone (with the pin hanging down) close to the record. Orient the needle arm so the pin is parallel to the groove and the cone lies tangent to the record. (To get a consistent sound, the pin needs to rest comfortably in the groove as the record rotates beneath it. Click to enlarge the image below.)
When you're ready, slowly lower the pin so that it rests in a groove of the spinning record. Gently hold just the top of the cone and let the weight of the cone be supported by the pin, allowing it to move with the motion of the spinning record.
Listen to what comes out of the open end of the paper cone. It should be music to your ears!