Paintings in the Sky
An introduction to mysterious and beautiful northern (and southern) lights.
This site shows "What they look like", "Where you can see
them" and "Why they happen"
Educator's Guide to Sunspots
A one-page guide for educators on how to have their students observe sunspots.
This site has good methods for constructing a solar projection to safely
view the sun. From the Views of The Solar System, an educational web tour
of our solar system.
Galileo Project at Rice University
This web resource provides in-depth information on the life and science
of Galileo, including excellent material on sunspots, the controversy
between Galileo and the Church, and the development of the telescope.
Great Moments in The History of Solar Physics
A good summary of the early history of our evolving understanding of the
sun, starting in 220 BC with the first mathematical attempt to calculate
the distance from the earth to the sun, and ending in 1860 with the new
uses of filtered photography to examine the sun.
Data Analysis Center
The Solar Data Analysis Center at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has
information on many solar research projects, and a fantastic archive of
solar images, both past and current, including the SOHO eruptive prominence
of the week.
A timeline of solar astronomy, starting with Galileo's observations of sunspots,
maintained at Georgia State University.
Stanford Solar Center
An amazingly detailed site, with pages and pages of information about the
sun, sun-related activities and curriculum, sun images from the orbital
SOHO telescope, and information about the work of Stanford's Solar Oscillations
Investigation. This is one of the best sun sites out there.
Aurorae, and Magnetic Disturbances
This site, part of the Athena Earth and Space Science resource, offers a
succinct and clear explanation of these various sun-earth phenomena.
Presented by the Space Environment Center, one of NOAA's research laboratories,
this site provides a daily update on levels of solar activity, and the intensities
of solar emissions reaching earth.
YOHKOH Data Archive
This site has background information and a complete data archive of images
from the Japanese orbital solar telescope YOHKOH.
The Ever-Changing Sun causes Space Weather
Presented by the Space Science Institute, this page provides a detailed
look at the ever-changing physics of the sun, including solar flares and
the corona, and how those events create "space weather" which
can affect us here on earth.
Books & Publications
Crowe, M.J. 1990, Theories of the World from Antiquity
to the Copernican Revolution, Dover.
Drake, S. 1978, Galileo at work: his scientific biography,
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press [1995 Dover reprint]
Galileo, G. 1632, Dialogues concerning the two chief world
systems, trans. S. Drake, 2nd edition 1967, University of California Press.
Galileo, G. 1613, Letters on Sunspots [in S. Drake (trans.)
1957, Ideas and Opinions of Galileo, Doubleday].
Hoskin, M. 1997 (ed.), The Cambridge illustrated History
of Astronomy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hufbauer, K. 1991, Exploring the Sun, The Johns Hopkins
King, Henry C., 1955, The History of the Telescope, Canada,
General Publishing Co., (Dover reprint 1979).
Meadows, A.J. 1970, Early Solar Physics, Pergamon Press.
Mitchell, W.M. 1916, The history of the discovery of the solar spots,
in Popular Astronomy.
Pannekoek, A. 1961, A History of Astronomy, New York: John