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Geneticist Mark Stoneking discusses a special type of genetic material called mitochondrial DNA gets passed directly from mother to child. Largely unchanged from generation to generation, this genetic material gives researchers a way to track populations back in time. Evolutionary geneticist Ed Green discusses the key questions researchers hope to answer by analyzing the Neanderthal genome. Anthropologist Tanya Smith explains that invisible microstructure inside teeth creates a durable record of life history, including events such as birth, illness, famine, stress, and death. Anthropologist Jean-Jacques Hublin explains that unlike teeth, bones undergo a lifelong process called remodeling, in which they are constantly being destroyed and recreated. Anthropologist Philipp Gunz explains the process of virtual fossil reconstruction, a technique that can reverse the damage done to fossils by time and the elements. Anthropologist Katerina Harvati explains the rare convergence of circumstances that are necessary for the discovery of a fossil specimen. Anthropologist Jean-Jacques Hublin discusses the role of conflict and argument in the scientific process. Ice Stories correspondent Howie Koss interviews James Van Matre, Waste Management Supervisor at McMurdo Station. We talk about Antarctica's waste management practices of the past and present, and why it's important to recycle. Evolutionary geneticist Svante Pääbo explains that analysis of ancient Neanderthal DNA is very tricky work, thanks to fragmentation and contamination of genetic material. Is a single gene, FOXP2, the secret to human speech? Researchers discuss the genetic underpinnings of speech and language.