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In this archived program from 2003, join us for a conversation with Pulitzer-prize winning biologist E. O. Wilson, who introduced the term biodiversity to describe the interlocking dependence and diversity of organisms in sustaining life in biological communities. We stayed up with Exploratorium scientist Ron Hipschman at the Lick Observatory in San Jose, California, for the best view we've had of Mars in a long, long time. At midnight on August 27, Earth and Mars passed closer to one another than they have in 60,000 years. Astronomers were on hand to tell us all about our nearest neighbor—its geography, orbit, and why both NASA and the European Space Agency have chosen this time to launch robotic missions to Mars. The first in a series on automotive science, this webcast will explain all about braking systems. How do disc brakes work? Are there other kinds of brakes? What kind of maintenance should you be doing? Join High School Explainers as they visit a repair shop. Watch as the best teachers on the planet battle it out for the title of Iron Science Teacher. In this zany competition teachers will have ten minutes to create a science activity. This week's secret ingredient-water! Join the Live@ Exploratorium Webcast crew as we investigate the sugary world of candy. In our studio, Exploratorium chef Michael Rothberg turns the heat up on sugar to show us the different stages of caramelization, making a simple caramel sauce and pralines in the process. Join a tour of the Jelly Belly jelly bean factory in Fairfield, CA. What is that hairy stuff on my cheese? Is cheese supposed to be runny? Creamy? Crumbly? How can anything that smells so bad taste so good? Join us as we explore the cool, dark world of cheese. Dr. Eric Lander, a leading figure in the Human Genome Project and director of the Whitehead Institute Center for Genome Research, tells us about the recently completed mouse genome and how the study of other genomes gives key information about human genetics and evolution. Dr. James Watson is the President of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and the co-discoverer of the double helix, for which he won a Nobel prize in physiology or medicine in 1962. Dr. Watson was also the first director of the Human Genome Project. He talks with us about early discoveries in molecular biology, the Human Genome Project, and what makes Cold Spring Harbor a unique scientific institution. Dr. Francis Collins is the Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute, which is responsible for coordinating the government-sponsored effort to map and sequence the entire human genome, considered by many as one of the most important scientific undertakings of our time. Dr. Collins is a physician and geneticist whose own work led to the identification of the genes for cystic fibrosis, neurofibromatosis, and Huntington's disease. In this Webcast, Dr. Collins explains the different strategies for finding disease genes, the competition between public and private efforts to decode the human genome, and the next steps for the Human Genome Project, now that the first accurate gene maps have been created. Dr. James Watson is the President of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and the codiscoverer of the double helix, for which he won a Nobel prize in physiology or medicine in 1962. Dr. Watson was also the first director of the Human Genome Project. He talks with us about early discoveries in molecular biology, the Human Genome Project, and what makes Cold Spring Harbor a unique scientific institution.