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00:04:24
Two Russian scientists--geologist Gennady Karpov and microbiologist Elizaveta Bonch-Osmolovskaya--discuss the unique volcanic features of the Uzon Caldera, the life forms living in the hot springs there, and the important questions they raise.

00:05:16
This clip introduces the 2006 expedition to remote Kamchatka, Russia. Twenty scientists arrive via helicopter to study the unique microbiology and geochemistry of the hot springs of the Uzon Caldera. Microorganisms that can survive the scalding temperatures and acidity in the springs are called extremophiles, and understanding these organisms helps answer questions about the origin and evolution of life on earth.

00:37:45
Jonathan Trent, Astrobiologist, NASA Ames Research Center studies "thermophiles," heat-loving microbes inhabiting places once thought too hostile for life, but analogous to environments that might be found on other planets. He discovered that some of these microbes make a protein that appears to stabilize their cell membranes (and may have applications for nanotechnology).

00:32:56
Nathalie Cabrol, Planetary Scientist, Principal Investigator at NASA Ames Research Center and the SETI Institute, looks for Mars analogs in extreme environments on Earth. She found one at the world’s highest lake at Chile’s Licancabur volcano, site of a unique analog to ancient Martian lakes. We chat with Dr. Cabrol as she investigates the life forms at Licancabur.