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Dr. Eric Lander, a leading figure in the Human Genome Project and director of the Whitehead Institute Center for Genome Research, tells us about the recently completed mouse genome and how the study of other genomes gives key information about human genetics and evolution. Dr. Francis Collins is the Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute, which is responsible for coordinating the government-sponsored effort to map and sequence the entire human genome, considered by many as one of the most important scientific undertakings of our time. Dr. Collins is a physician and geneticist whose own work led to the identification of the genes for cystic fibrosis, neurofibromatosis, and Huntington's disease. In this Webcast, Dr. Collins explains the different strategies for finding disease genes, the competition between public and private efforts to decode the human genome, and the next steps for the Human Genome Project, now that the first accurate gene maps have been created. Dr. James Watson is the President of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and the codiscoverer of the double helix, for which he won a Nobel prize in physiology or medicine in 1962. Dr. Watson was also the first director of the Human Genome Project. He talks with us about early discoveries in molecular biology, the Human Genome Project, and what makes Cold Spring Harbor a unique scientific institution. Dr. Carol Greider is a professor of molecular biology and genetics at Johns Hopkins University. She worked with molecular biologist Elizabeth Blackburn to discover the role of telomeres—segments of DNA that protect and stabilize the ends of chromosomes. Dr. Greider tells us about her work and shares her thoughts about the importance of mentors for women in science. Dr. Walter Gilbert, a physicist who turned to molecular biology in 1960, won the Nobel prize in chemistry in 1980 for determining the base sequences of DNA. His recent research has concentrated on the structure of genes and the evolution of DNA sequences. In this Webcast, Dr Gilbert tells us how physicists have helped drive discoveries in molecular biology, and the relationship between private and university research efforts.