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Why do the hands on clocks go "clockwise?" Seems like a circular definition, but if you looked closely at sundials in the northern hemisphere, you'd notice that the shadow of the sun moves around the sundial in a "clockwise" direction. This was adopted by clock-makers and became the standard we know today. In the southern hemisphere, the sun's shadow moves around the dial in the opposite direction, so if clocks had been invented there, our watches would move the other way.

UC Berkeley astrophysicist Bill Holzapfel takes us on a tour of the South Pole Telescope and explains how it is unlocking the secrets of the Universe.

We tour the NOAA Atmospheric Research Observatory at the South Pole where scientists are monitoring carbon dioxide levels, CFCs, solar radiation, and the ozone hole.

In this program, learn about meteorite hunting in Antarctica with Ralph Harvey who leads the Antarctic Search for Meteorites program (ANSMET).

We speak with glaciologists Slawek Tulaczyk and Jake Walter, who study ice-sheet dynamics.

Join us as we talk to scientists working with IceCube, a neutrino telescope buried in the ice under the South Pole.

We speak to Robin Bell from the AGAP (Antarctic Gamburtsev Province) expedition. This is the first systematic study of our planet's last unexplored mountain range. This webcast was our first this season, and we had some technical difficulties.

An interview with Isabel Hawkins, Co-director/Research Astronomer, UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory; Co-director, NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum.

When astronomer Isabel Hawkins began exploring the astronomical work of Native Americans, their knowledge broadened her view of the night sky. She's since discovered several scientists incorporating the work of native people, both modern and ancient, into their current-day research. Isabel describes how she sees science as a cultural construct, the value of learning from personal experience, and that evidence comes in many forms.

On August 1, 2008, a total solar eclipse occurred as the new moon moved directly between the sun and the earth. The moon's umbral shadow fell on parts of Canada, Greenland, the Arctic Ocean, Russia, Mongolia, and China. The Exploratorium's eclipse expedition team (our fifth!) Webcast the eclipse live from the remote Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in northwestern China near the Mongolian border.

Watch totality highlights originally recorded LIVE from the remote Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in northwestern China near the Mongolian border.