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James Turrell studied optics and perceptual psychology in college, but gravitated towards art as his curiosity led him to investigate light itself. In this Webcast of a lecture, James Turrell discusses his experiences manipulating pure light and how it became his artistic medium. He reveals how this early work led him to discover Roden Crater in Arizona and to create his subsequent lifelong project of transforming the crater into an astronomical observatory. Join the Exploratorium's Dr. Paul Doherty as he visits a "sculpture to observe the stars" in northern New Mexico, where the Sangre de Cristo Mountains meet the eastern plains. There artist Charles Ross is creating an art installation that is also a star observatory. This major earthwork has two main elements: the Star Tunnel, which allows you to walk through the entire history of the earth's changing alignment to our North Star, Polaris; and the Solar Pyramid, where one can visually experience an hour of the earth's rotation. See an 8 minute video of the planet Mars from the James Lick Observatory telescope! In this archived program from 2003, join us for a conversation with Pulitzer-prize winning biologist E. O. Wilson, who introduced the term biodiversity to describe the interlocking dependence and diversity of organisms in sustaining life in biological communities. We stayed up with Exploratorium scientist Ron Hipschman at the Lick Observatory in San Jose, California, for the best view we've had of Mars in a long, long time. At midnight on August 27, Earth and Mars passed closer to one another than they have in 60,000 years. Astronomers were on hand to tell us all about our nearest neighbor—its geography, orbit, and why both NASA and the European Space Agency have chosen this time to launch robotic missions to Mars. The first in a series on automotive science, this webcast will explain all about braking systems. How do disc brakes work? Are there other kinds of brakes? What kind of maintenance should you be doing? Join High School Explainers as they visit a repair shop. Watch as the best teachers on the planet battle it out for the title of Iron Science Teacher. In this zany competition teachers will have ten minutes to create a science activity. This week's secret ingredient-water! Join the Live@ Exploratorium Webcast crew as we investigate the sugary world of candy. In our studio, Exploratorium chef Michael Rothberg turns the heat up on sugar to show us the different stages of caramelization, making a simple caramel sauce and pralines in the process. Join a tour of the Jelly Belly jelly bean factory in Fairfield, CA. What is that hairy stuff on my cheese? Is cheese supposed to be runny? Creamy? Crumbly? How can anything that smells so bad taste so good? Join us as we explore the cool, dark world of cheese. Dr. Eric Lander, a leading figure in the Human Genome Project and director of the Whitehead Institute Center for Genome Research, tells us about the recently completed mouse genome and how the study of other genomes gives key information about human genetics and evolution.