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Adélie penguins walking across ice on the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Adélie penguins sitting on eggs in their nests at Cape Royds, Antarctica. Adélie penguins engaging in a behavior called tobogganning. Like sledding, penguins cruise along the slick ice on their bellies -- a faster way of traveling than by walking. This video captures the energy and excitement of traversing across the sea ice to the Offshore New Harbor Field Camp. Geneticist Mark Stoneking discusses a special type of genetic material called mitochondrial DNA gets passed directly from mother to child. Largely unchanged from generation to generation, this genetic material gives researchers a way to track populations back in time. Anthropologist Tanya Smith explains that invisible microstructure inside teeth creates a durable record of life history, including events such as birth, illness, famine, stress, and death. Anthropologist Jean-Jacques Hublin explains that unlike teeth, bones undergo a lifelong process called remodeling, in which they are constantly being destroyed and recreated. Anthropologist Philipp Gunz explains the process of virtual fossil reconstruction, a technique that can reverse the damage done to fossils by time and the elements. Anthropologist Katerina Harvati explains the rare convergence of circumstances that are necessary for the discovery of a fossil specimen. Anthropologist Jean-Jacques Hublin discusses the role of conflict and argument in the scientific process.