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Evolutionary geneticist Svante Pääbo explains that analysis of ancient Neanderthal DNA is very tricky work, thanks to fragmentation and contamination of genetic material. Is a single gene, FOXP2, the secret to human speech? Researchers discuss the genetic underpinnings of speech and language. Anthropologist Katerina Harvati explains how scientists from various disciplines work together to find fossilized human remains. Anthropologist Katerina Harvati explains the importance of cast collections to the study of human evolution. Various features of a fossil skull help anthropologists determine what species it belongs to. Here, anthropologist Katerina Harvati explains how a pencil can be used to distinguish between ancient human species. Some 35,000 years ago, Neanderthals became extinct. Climate change and a taste for steaks may be to blame. (Sound familiar?) Anthropologist Katerina Harvati explains. Anthropologist Katerina Harvati dispels popular myths about Neanderthals. Anthropologist Jean-Jacques Hublin gives evidence suggesting that humans and Neanderthals exchanged culture and technologies. Evolutionary geneticist Svante Pääbo explains that culture—long thought to be an exclusively human characteristic—is evident among other primates as well. Primatologist Christophe Boesch demonstrates and discusses a leaf clipping, an aspect of chimpanzee behavior.