Settling Column

SETTLING COLUMN demonstrates that sand falling through water forms complex patterns. The visitor turns over a tube containing sand and blue liquid, causing the sand to fall. The angle of the tube affects the patterns of flow. As the sand falls, it displaces water at the bottom of the tube, causing the fluid to flow upwards. When this upwelling encounters more falling sand, much turbulence is created. The more vertically the tube is oriented, the greater the turbulence and the longer the sand takes to settle.