Historian's Committee for Open Debate on Hiroshima

1914 Biltimare St., NW Washington, DC 20009
Phone: 202-328-9659 Fax: 202-332-2919


* Items marked with "*" are excellent introductory materials about either the historical debate, or the Enola Gay exhibit controversy. All of the op-eds and editorials are about the controversy and are worth reading.


Alperovitz, Gar. Atomic Diplomacy: Hiroshima and Potsdam, expanded and updated. New York: Penguin, 1985.

Bernstein, Barton J. ed. The Atomic Bomb: The Critical Issues. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1976.

Bird, Kai. Chapter 12. "Hiroshima" The Chairman: John J. McCloy, the Making of the American Establishment. New York: Simon Schuster, 1992.

Boyer, Paul. By the Bomb's Early Light. New York: Pantheon, 1985.

Braw, Monica. The Atomic Bomb Suppressed: American Censorship in Occupied Japan. Armonk. New York: M.E. Sharpe. 1991.

Bundy, McGeorge. Danger and Survival: Choices about the Bomb in the First Fifty Years. New York: Random House. 1988.

Dower, John. War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War. New York: Pantheon, 1986.

Drea, Edward J. MacArthur's Ultra: Codebreaking and the War Against Japan. 1942-1945. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1992.

Eisenhower, Dwight D. The White House Years: Mandate for Change, 1953-1956. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1963.

Feifer, George. Tennozan: The Battle of Okinawa and the Atomic Bomb. New York: Ticknor & Fields,1992.

Feis, Herbert. The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II. Princeton University Press, 1966.

Ferrell, Robert H. Harry S. Truman: A Life. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1994.

Fussell, Paul. Chapter 1, "Thank God for the Atomic Bomb", Thank God for the Atom Bomb and Other Essays. New York 1988.

Giovannitti, Len and Fred Freed. The Decision to Drop the Bomb. New York: Coward-McCann, 1965.

Hershberg, James G. James B. Conant: Harvard to Hiroshima and the Making of the Nuclear Age. Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.

Herken, Gregg. The Winning Weapon: The Atomic Bomb in the Cold War. 1945-50. New York: Alfred Knopf: Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1981 and 1988 (new preface).

Hersey, John. Hiroshima. New York: Vintage Books. 1946. 1985.

Holloway, David. Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.

Jones, Vincent C. Manhattan, the Army and the Atomic Bomb Washington, DC: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 1985.

Lanouette, William with Bela Szilard. Genius in the Shadows: Biography or Leo Szilard, the Man Behind the Bomb. New York: Charles Schribner's Sons, 1992.

Leahy William. I Was There: The Personal Story of the Chief of Staff to Presidents Roosevelt and Truman, based on His Notes and Diaries Made at the Time. New York: Whittlesey House, 1950.

Leffler, Melvyn P. A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992.

Linenthal, Edward Tabor. Chapter 5. "Pearl Harbor", Sacred Ground: Americans and their Battlefield. Urbana: University Press, 1993. 2nd ed.

McCullough, David. Truman. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Messer, Robert L. The End of an Alliance: James F. Byrnes, Roosevelt, Truman and the Origins of the Cold War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982.

Muresianu, John. War of ideas: American Intellectuals and the World Crisis. 1938-1945. New York: Garland, 1988.

Novick, Peter. That Noble Dream: The "objectivity question" and the American Historical Profession. Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Piehler. G. Kurt. Remembering War the American Way. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian, Forthcoming in 1995.

Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986.

Robertson, David. Sly and Able: A Political Biography of James F. Byrnes. New York: W.W. Norton, 1994.

Shaheen, Jack G. and Richard Taylor. Chapter 1. "The Beginning or the End." in Nuclear War Films, ed. Jack Shaheen. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. 3-10, 1978.

Sherry. Michael. The Rise of American Air Power: The Creation of Armageddon. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987.

Sherwin, Martin. A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance, rev. ed. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1987.

Sigal, Leon. Fighting to a Finish. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988.

Skates, John Ray. The Invasion of Japan: Alternative to the Bomb. Columbia SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1994.

Spector, Ronald H. Eagle. Against the Sun: The American War with Japan. New York: Vintage. 1985.

Stoff, Michael. Jonathan Fanton, and R. Hal Williams. The Manhattan Project: A Documentary Introduction to the Atomic Age. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991.

Weart, Spencer. Nuclear fear: A History of Images. Cambridge. Harvard University Press, 1988.

Winkler, Allan. Life Under a Cloud: American Anxiety about the Atom. New York: Oxford, 1993.


*Alperovitz, Gar. "Why the United States Dropped the Bomb." Technology Review, (August/September), 1990.

, and Kai Bird. "The Centrality of the Bomb." Foreign Policy No. 94 (Spring), 1994.

,and Robert Messer. "Marshall, Truman, and the Decision to Drop the Bomb." International Security 16 (Winter), 1991/92.

* Bernstein, Barton J. "Seizing the Contested Terrain of Early Nuclear History: Stimson ,Conant, and their Allies Explain the Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb." Diplomatic History 17 (Winter): 35-72, 1993.

* , "The Atomic Bombings Reconsidered." Foreign Affairs; 74 (January/February): 135-152, 1995.

, "A Postwar Myth: 500,000 U.S. Lives Saved." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 42 (June/July): 38-40, 1986.

, "Truman at Potsdam: His Secret Diary." Foreign Service Journal 36 (July/August): 29-33, 36, 1980.

Boller, Paul F. Jr. "Hiroshima and the American Left." International Social Science Review 57 (Winter), 1982.

Capaccio, Tony. "Truman Author Errs On Japan Invasion Casualty Memo." Defense Week 15 (October 11): 8-9, 1946.

Cousins, Norman. "The Literacy of Survival." The Saturday Review of Literature 14 (September 14): 14, 1946.

Gilbert, James. "Memorializing the Bomb." Radical History Review 34 (January): 101-106, 1986.

Goldberg, Stanley. "Groves Takes the Reins." The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (December): 34-35, 1992.

Hales, Peter. "The Atomic Sublime." American Studies 32 (Spring): 5-31, 1991.

Hikins, James. "The Rhetoric of 'unconditional surrender' and the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb." Quarterly Journal of Speech 69 (November): 379-400, 1983.

Linenthal, Edward Tabor, Shaping a Heroic Presence: Iwo Jima in American Memory." Reviews in American History 21: 8-12, 1993.

MacDonald, Dwight. "The Bomb." Politics 2 (September): 257-260, 1945.

Messer. Robert L. "New Evidence on Truman's Decision." The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 41 (August): 50-56, 1985.

Reingold, Nathan. "Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Meets the Atom Bomb." In Expository Science: Forms and Functions of Popularization, ed. Terry Shinn and Richard Whitley. Sociology of the Sciences 9: 229-245, 1985.

Sigal, Leon. "Bureaucratic Politics & Tactical Use of Comittees: The Interim Committee & the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb." Polity 10 (Spring): 326-364, 1978.

* Walker, J. Samuel. "The Decision to Use the Bomb: A Historiographical Update." Diplomatic History 14 (No. 1), 1990.

Yavenditti, Michael J. "The American People and the use of Atomic Bombs on Japan: The 1940s." Historian 36 (February), 1974.

, "John Hersey and the American Conscience: The Reception of 'Hiroshima'." Pacific Historical Review 43 (February), 1974.

, "Atomic Scientists and Hollywood: The Beginning or the End?" Film & History 8 (No. 4), 1978.

Winnacker, Rudolph A. "The Debate about Hiroshima." Military Affairs 11 (Spring): 25-30, 1947.

Zacharias, Ellis M. "We Did Not Need to Drop the A-Bomb." Look (May 23): 29-35, 1950.


Alperovitz, Gar. "Was Hiroshima Needed to end the War?" The Christian Science Monitor (August 6, 1992).

, "The Hiroshima Decision: A Moral Reassessment." Christianity and Crisis (February 3, 1992).

* Bird, Kai. "Silencing History." The Nation. (February 20, 1995): 224.

Boyer, Paul. "The Cloud Over the Culture." New Republic (August 12 & 19): 26-31, 1985.

* Dichtl, John R. "A Chronology of the Smithsonian's 'Last Act'". Organization of American Historians Newsletter 22 (November): 9-10, 1994.

* , Arnita Jones and Page Miller. Enola Gay Controversy Continues". O. Organization of American Historians Newsletter (February): 1995.

Gallup. George, Jr. and Frank Newport. "Only Half of .Americans Now Approve of the Atom Bombing of Japan." Gallup Poll Monthly No. 299 (August), 1990.

* Lanouette, William. "Why we Dropped the Bomb." Civilization (January/February): 28-39, 1985.

Leo, Vincent. "The Mushroom Cloud Photograph: From Fact to Symbol." Afterimage 13 (Summer): 6-12, 1985.

Stimson, Henry L. "The Bomb and the Opportunity." Harper's 192 (March): 204, 1946.


Alperovitz, Gar. "Beyond the Smithsonian Flap: Historians' New Consensus." The Washington Post, October 16, 1994.

, '"Enola Gay: A New Consensus..." The Washington Post, February 4, 1995.

Bernstein, Barton. "Hiroshima Rewritten." The New York Times, January 31, 1995.

Bird. Kai. "The Curators Cave In." The New York Times, October 9, 1994.

Coy, Patrick G. "Don't Mark War Anniversary With Stamp Backing Big Lie." The Washington Post, January 19, 1995.

Editorial. "The Smithsonian and the Bomb." The New York Times, September 5, 1994.

Editorial. "The Smithsonian Changes Course." The Washington Post, February 1, 1995.

Editorial. "The Trend of History." The Wall Street Journal, January 31, 1995.

Harwit, Martin. "The Enola Gay: A Nation's and a Museum's Dilemma." The Washington Post, August 7, 1994. C1.

Kifner, John. "Hiroshima Controversy that Refuses to Die." The New York Times, January 31, 1995.

Krauthammer, Charles. "World War II. Revised." The Washington Post, August 19, 1994. A27.

McCarthy, Colman. "Heeding All the Lessons of Hiroshima." The Washington Post, September 20, 1994. D21.

Mitchell, Greg. "A War Anniversary Hard to Celebrate." The Los Angeles Times, August 3, 1994.

Neier, Aryeh. "Watching Rights." The Nation. October 17, 1994.

Newman, Robert "What New Consensus?" The Washington Post, November 30, 1994.

Roberts, Chalmers. "Our Boys or the Bomb?" The Washington Post, October 16, 1994.

Yardley, Jonathan. "Dropping a Bomb of an Idea." The Washington Post, October 10, 1994.

Yoder, Edwin M. " ...or Hiroshima Cult. " The Washington Post, February 4, 1995.


Black Rain, (Angelica Films and Orion Videos) Directed by Shaohei Imamura, this 123 minute Japanese film interweaves documentary footage and dramatized scenes to recreate the scene at Hiroshirma: 1989.

Hiroshima/Nagasaki. August 1945, (Center for Mass Communication of Columbia University Press) Narrated and written by Paul Ronder and photographed in l945 by Akira Iwasaki, this is a Sixteen minute 16mm film composed of archival footage documenting post-atomic Hiroshima and Nagasaki: 1970. [see resource page]

Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes, (Informed Democracy and Better World Society) The true story of a Japanese girl who was 2 years old in Hiroshima at the bombing. Ten years later, as she is dying of leukemia, she works to fulfill an old Japanese tradition of folding 1,000 paper cranes to be granted her with to be well again. The video is narrated by Liv Ullmann, the soundtrack is by George Winston, it is depicted in drawings by Ed Young, and is suitable for both children and adults: 1990. [see resource page]

Summer of the Bomb. (British Broadcasting Company) Documentary of the decision to use the bomb, featuring historian Gar Alperovitz and dramatizations of key meeting and discussions of the summer of 1945: 1989.

The Day after Trinity, (Pyramid Video) The life of Robert Oppenheimer and the development of the bomb. Links the Manhattan Project with continuing nuclear proliferation issues: 1981.


Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes is available from its producer, George Levenson at Informed Democracy. To order it call and indicate that you are a part of the National Teach-In on Hiroshima.

Informed Democracy
PO Box 67
Santa Cruz, CA 95063
fax: 408-426-2312

Hiroshima/Nagasaki, August 1945 can be purchased or rented from New York Museum of Modern Art's Circulating Film Library ($40 to rent 16mm, $230 to purchase 16 mm. and $100 to rent VHS).

Museum of Modern Art
Circulating Film and Video Library
11 West 53rd Street
New York, NY 10019
fax: 212-708-9531


The Fellowship of Reconciliation is offering a resource packet containing twenty pages of information including background, chronology of the controversy, an action suggestion page, selection of articles, 3-4 pages of analysis of the changes made to the Enola Gay exhibit script, and statements from World War II scholars. It is a good basic introduction to the controversy, and assumes the reader has not had access to different scripts. The cost is $4, and can be obtained by calling or writing:

Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR)
Box 271
Nyack, NY 10960

The Hiroshima/Nagasaki Memorial Collection at the Wilmington College Peace Resource Center is internationally known as the repository of information about the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Research Material include vertical files and a library in English and Japanese with first-person accounts of the bombings and their aftermath, documentary film footage, and information on radiation victims in Japan and the U.S., and materials on the peace movement in Japan. Provides a catalog of books and audio-visual materials for mail order.

Wilmington College Peace Resource Center
Pyle Center Box 1183
Wilmington, OH 45177
e-mail: pre@wilmington.edu

The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists has been published for fifty years and may contain valuable articles on the atomic era.

The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists
6402 South Kimbark Avenue
Chicago, IL 60637

Center for Defense Information was founded by retired military officers to oppose excessive expenditures for weapons and policies that increase the danger of war.

Center for Defense Information
1500 Massachusetts Ave.,NW
Washington, DC 20005


We of course recommend that you contact the professors in your local history and related departments. If you want other perspectives here are some possible sources of speakers.

Veterans for Peace, Inc. is a national organization of U.S. military veterans who have participated in wars throughout this century, and who no longer condone war in this age of modern technology. Veterans for Peace may be able to refer you to veterans that would be willing to speak on a local, regional, or national level. To contact this organization call or write to:

Veterans for Peace, Inc.
Attn: P.O. Box 3881
Portland, ME 04104
fax: 207-773-0804

American Legion National Offices have been active in the Enola Gay controversy and may have resource material available. The Legion may also be able to provide speakers from your local area. For more information call or write:

American Legion National Headquarters
Attn: Phil Budahan
1608 K Street, N.W.
Washington. D.C 20006
Fax: 202-861-2785

The Air Force Association has also been involved and will have speakers and some resources available by calling or writing:

Air Force Association
Attn: Stephan, Chief of Media
1501 Lee Highway
Arlington, VA 22209

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